Database management is the system to manage information that is essential to the company’s business operations. It includes data storage and distribution to users and application programs and modifying it as needed as well as monitoring changes to the data and preventing it from getting damaged due to unexpected failures. It is a component of the entire informational infrastructure of a business that assists in decision making in corporate growth, as well as compliance with laws such as the GDPR and California Consumer Privacy Act.

In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM along with others created the first database systems. They evolved into information management systems (IMS) that allowed the storage and retrieve large amounts data for a variety of uses, from calculating inventory to supporting complex financial accounting and human resources functions.

A database is a collection of tables that arrange data according to a specific pattern, such as one-to many relationships. It utilizes primary keys to identify records, and allow cross-references between tables. Each table is comprised of a set of fields, referred to as attributes, that contain information about data entities. Relational models, created by E. F. “TedCodd Codd in the 1970s at IBM as a database, are the most used database type today. This design is based on normalizing data to make it easier to use. It is also easier to update data since it doesn’t require changing many sections of the databases.

Most DBMSs support multiple database types by providing different levels of internal and external organization. The internal level deals with cost, scalability, and other operational issues, including the physical layout of the database. The external level is the representation of the database in user interfaces and applications. It can include a combination of different external views (based on different data models) and could also include virtual tables which are generated from data that is generic to enhance performance.